Glossary of Medical Terms
The cavity of the body which extends from the diaphragm at the base of the thorax to the floor of the pelvis.
The 6th cranial nerve which serves muscles of the eye.
Moving a limb outwards from the trunk.
A muscle which tends to pull a limb away from the middle line.
Cutting away tissue or abnormal growth.
Premature or untimely expulsion of the fetus.
A portion of a surface from which the skin has been removed by rubbing.
A collection of pus.
The 11th cranial nerve which serves the neck muscles.
Adjustments of the eye to provide clear and distinct pictures of objects at various distances.
A socket on the lower part of the pelvic bone in which the head of the hipbone is situated.
The tendon which connects the calf muscles to the heelbone.
A condition in which the acidity of body fluids and tissues is abnormally high
Slow blood circulation causing bluish discolouration of hands and feet.
The joint between the clavicle and the acromion.
The outer end of the shoulder blade.
A tingling sensation in hands and feet.
Sharpness or clearness of vision.
Severe symptoms which are relatively brief in duration.
A flare up of a pre-existing condition which settles after treatment although the chronic condition remains.
Caused by underactivity of the adrenal glands resulting in extreme weakness.
The bringing of a limb towards the trunk.
Any muscle which draws a part towards the medial line.
Inflammation of a gland.
Amalignant tumour originating in a gland.
An operation to remove adenoids.
A mass of tissue located at the back of the mouth.
A benign tumour or swelling of the glandular tissue.
The union of normally separate parts of new tissue produced as a result of inflammation.
Near a nerve.
The glands of the endocrine system which are located above the kidneys.
Loose tissue on the outer surface of a blood vessel.
Any organism which requires oxygen in order to live.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Loss of muscular response.
Difficulty in reading.
Canal The tubular passage extending from the mouth to the anus through which food is passed and digested.
A substance that causes an allergy.
Extreme sensitivity to a substance that causes the body to react to any contact with that substance.
Loss of hair.
One of the four projections which make up each jaw bone.
The part of the upper or lower jawbone that holds the roots of the teeth.
A condition of reduced or dimmed vision not caused by disease.
A type of chemical compound derived from ammonia which is present in the human body.
Lack of ability to recall events.
The puncture of the amniotic sac to drain or sample amniotic fluid.
The fluid contained within the amniotic sac.
The pouch containing the embrionic fetus.
A deficiency of red blood cells.
An organism which does not require oxygen in order to live.
A substance which causes a loss of bodily feeling.
Any medication intended to relieve pain.
Joining up two ends of a hollow organ.
A localised dilation of the walls of a blood vessel, (usually an artery).
A disease causing sudden intense pain in the chest as a result of a lack of adequate blood supply to the heart muscles.
A series of X-ray films of the heart after the intravenous injection of a radio-opaque substance.
A series of X-ray films taken after a radio-opaque substance is introduced into the blood vessels.
A tumour consisting of a mass of blood vessels.
A disease of the spine causing gradual loss of mobility in the joints between the vertebrae.
Immobility or stiffness of a joint.
Treatment to ease pain.
Loss of sense of smell.
The front part.
Extending from the front to the back.
A chemical substance capable of destroying micro-organisms (including bacteria).
A protein produced in the blood by the presence of antigen.
An antibody which must be given to a mother with a rhesus negative blood group who delivers or aborts a rhesus positive baby or fetus in order to prevent the mother developing antibodies which will damage a subsequent baby.
A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies.
Fever reducing drug.
An operation to remove part of the stomach.
Failure of secretion of urine (a symptom of kidney failure).
The excretory opening at the end of the alimentary canal situated in the perineum.
The largest blood vessel in the body which conveys oxygen rich blood from the heart to all parts of the body except the lungs.
A system for rating an infant’s physical condition immediately after birth by assessing heart rate, colour, respiration and muscle tone. 10 = Excellent. 0 = Dead.
Absence of ability to speak.
An operation to remove the appendix.
An inflamed condition of the appendix.
A small worm like structure which is attached to the caecum and which has no apparent function.
A failure of the brain resulting in loss of memory of how to make certain movements.
The middle of the three membranes that cover the spinal cord and brain.
Inflammation of the arachnoid.
Any variation from the normal rhythms of the heart beat.
The visualisation of arteries by means of X-rays after injection of radio-opaque material.
Hardening of the arteries.
A vessel carrying blood from the heart to different parts of the body.
Inflammation of a joint.
An operation to fuse joints.
Disease of a joint.
A movement of the great toe towards the sole of the foot upon stimulation of the sole of the foot.
A parasitic micro organism which causes disease.
A preparation of barium sulphate which is radio-opaque and which is swallowed by a patient prior to x-ray examination of the alimentary canal
Earache caused by eg climbing or descending in an aeroplane.
Injury to the middle ear caused by Barotitis.
Relating to a base.
Basal metabolic rate
A test of thyroid function.
Paralysis of the face.
A muscle that has two heads.
A premolar tooth.
Occurring on both sides.
Bilateral carotid bruits
Noises which suggest narrowing of the carotid arteries by atheroma.
An alkaline fluid which is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
A duct conveying bile from the liver via the gall bladder to the intestine.
Involving both eyes.
The removal and examination of living tissue for diagnostic purposes.
The pouch situated in the anterior part of the pelvis which serves as a storage tank for urine before it is discharged.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
The pressure of blood circulating within the vascular system.
Relating to the arm.
A muscle on the side of the forearm.
Slowing of the heart rate.
An inflammation of the bronchus.
The air passages between the trachea and the lungs.
The visible sign of a haematoma.
An inflammatory swelling of the bursa of the joint of the big toe.
A small fluid filled sac which reduces friction in a joint.
Inflammation of a bursa (eg. housemaid’s knee).
A form of lung disease, resulting from inhalation of cotton flax or hemp dust.
Irregularity in the sense of smell caused by brain damage.
An incision in the abdominal wall in order to deliver a baby.
The hardening of organic tissue caused by the accumulation of calcium.
A metallic substance present in bones and teeth.
Bony material which grows around and between two ends of a fractured bone whilst healing.
A malignant tumour arising from epithelial cells.
The four teeth (two in each jaw) situated between the incisors and the premolars.
The corner (e.g. of the eye).
The largest of the carpal bones.
Inflammation around a joint.
Any substance which causes cancer.
A malignant cancerous tumour.
Relating to the heart.
Tooth or bone decay.
Relating to or situated near one of the carotid arteries.
The two main arteries that carry blood to the head and neck.
Relating to the wrist.
The eight bones which form the wrist.
Bones of the wrist.
Tissue situated at the ends of bones which is firm, flexible and slightly elastic (gristle).
Opacity in the lens of the eye which may be partial or complete.
Cleansing the bowels.
A flexible tube which is inserted into the body to extract or introduce fluid.
Computerized axial tomography.
A sheaf of nerve roots which runs down through the lower parts of the spinal canal.
A burning pain or intense hypersensitivity in a peripheral nerve.
The process of burning a part with an instrument or other agent.
The pouch which forms the beginning of the large intestine.
The smallest unit of an organism that is able to function independently.
An inflammation of tissue.
Pain in the head.
Relating to the head
The part of the brain whose function is co-ordination of voluntary movement and maintenance of body equilibrium.
Relating to the cerebrum.
Relating to the brain and the spine.
The dominant part of the brain associated with intellectual function, emotion and personality.
Relating to the cervix.
Degeneration of the bones of the neck.
The lower part of the uterus that extends into the vagina.
The front part of the trunk from the head to the abdomen.
An operation to remove the gall bladder.
Inflammation in a cartilage.
A condition of abnormal softness of cartilage.
The main part of the vascular coat of the eye which is composed of two main layers, the suprachoroid lamina and the choroid proper.
A part of a cell which contains the genes.
Slowly developing and long lasting.
The scar of a healed wound.
Chronic disease of the liver.
Pain which develops after a certain amount of exertion.
The bones connecting the shoulder blade with the breastbone.
A deformity of the foot caused by paralysis of the muscles.
A deformity of the hand characterized by a bending forward of the fingers.
A fissure, notch, gap or depression.
A small erectile organ in the female at the front of the vulva.
One that does not produce an open wound.
A type of bacteria.
Pain in the coccyx and surrounding area.
Relating to the coccyx.
An operation to remove the coccyx.
A small triangular bone attached to the lower part of the sacrum.
The inner part of the ear.
The ability to understand and perceive.
Inflammation of the colon.
A condition existing when the lung contains no air.
A fracture across the lower end of the radius.
The part of the large intestine between the caecum and the rectum.
A temporary or permanent artificial opening made through the abdominal wall into the colon.
The inability to perceive one or more colours.
Examination of the cervix through a microscope
A state of unconsciousness from which the person cannot be roused by external stimuli.
Bone fractured into several pieces.
Where there is more than one break.
A fracture associated with vertical crushing.
A computerised analysis of X-rays focused at different levels tomography which produce detailed images of a particular structure.
An injury resulting from a blow or impact.
A rounded bulge at the end of some bones.
Present at birth.
Inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the eyelids.
A jelly like substance which supports organs, fills the spaces around them and supports ligaments and tendons.
Any agent or measure used to prevent conception.
A violent and involuntary contraction of a muscle.
An operation to remove a vocal cord.
The transparent membrane covering the anterior part of the eyeball.
Arteries supplying blood to the walls of the heart.
The swelling towards the top of the ulna.
A cell which is suspended in fluid.
The outer part of an organ.
Relating to the ribs.
Relating to a rib and a vertebra.
Relating to the cranium.
The nerves arising from the brain.
An operation to cut away a portion of the skull.
The surgical correction or restoration of defects of the skull.
Relating to the skull and the sacrum.
An operation on the skull.
A substance mainly comprised of nitrogen which is present in muscle.
A waste produce of creatine which is excreted by urine.
Crackling noises caused by congestion or inflammation of the lungs.
Grating caused by bone running against bone or roughened cartilage (usually associated with the movement of an arthritic joint).
Shaped like a cross.
Relating to the leg or thigh.
Having the characteristic of crystal.
A bone on the side of the foot and in front of the heel bone.
One of the bones of the ankle.
An instrument for removing dead tissue from the wall of a cavity.
The process of using a curette.
Caused by malfunctioning adrenal glands resulting in obesity, high blood pressure and osteoporosis.
Affecting or asociated with the skin.
Blueness of skin owing to circulation of imperfectly oxygenated blood.
A form of inflammation of the eye.
A form of paralysis of the eye muscle.
A blister like pouch containing fluid from degenerating, inflamed or neoplastic tissue.
The normal drainage channel for the gall bladder.
A genetic disease affecting the lungs.
Inflammation of the bladder.
D & C
A surgical procedure intended to achieve dilation of the cervix and curettage of the uterus
Inflammation of a digit (e.g. toe, finger).
Inability to distinguish between red and green.
The excision of dead tissue from a wound in order to remove food on which organisms can grow.
The removal of alien matter in a wound (such as dirt, dead tissue, etc) in order to clean the wound to facilitate healing.
Restoration of heart rhythm by means of an electric shock.
The loss or restriction of water.
The muscle covering the shoulder region and running from the scapula and clavicle to the middle of the humerus.
Relating to the skin.
Inflammation of the skin.
A condition where the retina becomes separated from the choroid.
To remove the nerve of a tooth or an organ.
Any of a group of diseases in which there is polyuria and/or an error of metabolism.
The deliberate surgical fracture of a bone in order to reset a deformity.
The removal of harmful chemicals from the blood by the use of an artificial kidney.
A thin layer of tissue stretched across an opening.
The central shaft of a large bone.
The forcible separation of parts that are normally joined.
A finger or toe.
The action (whether by surgery or occurring naturally) of making something wider.
Paralysis of both sides of the body.
An infectious disease which causes breathing difficulties.
To separate the joints by injury or surgery.
A flat, circular, coin shaped structure.
Demonstration of a disc of a joint by the injection of a radio-opaque medium.
The abnormal displacement of a bone from a joint.
The extremity of a limb or organ furthest from the centre of the body.
A condition of inflammation of a diverticulum.
A condition of the colon on which the muscular wall gives way in places forming pouches which became filled with faecal material
A pouch formed by diverticulosis.
Relating to the back part of the body.
Part of the spine where ribs join.
The backward movement of joints.
The back or outer surface.
A genetic disorder resulting in a flat facial look and some mental handicap.
Relating to the duodenum.
Inflammation of the duodenum.
The first 20 to 25 cm of the small intestine.
The outermost membrane covering the brain.
Partial inability to speak.
Difficulty in breathing.
The deterioration or degeneration of an organ or body tissues.
Pain during urination.
The final result of osteoarthritis, when the cartilage at the articulating surface of a bone is totally worn down.
An extravasation of blood.
A toxic condition (to which pregnant women are particularly susceptible) characterised by high blood pressure and convulsions.
The shedding of skin.
A type of inflammation of the skin.
The escape of fluid (eg. pus, blood, etc) into a body cavity.
A tracing of the electric currents that initiate the heart beat and which is used to diagnose possible heart disorders.
A graph derived from a recording of brain activity and used in the diagnosis of epilepsy.
The obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus.
Material (such as a blood clot or an air bubble) which is carried by the blood stream.
The gaps existing between neighbouring teeth.
The human product of conception up to the first eight weeks of intrauterine life. The term fetus is used after that.
A projection (usually describing that on a bone).
(1) The collection of air in certain parts of the body where it is not usually present.
(2) A condition in which the lungs become grossly enlarged due to retention of air.
A joint (such as the hip or shoulder) which operates by way of a ball and socket.
An internal secretion.
The lining of the womb.
An instrument for examining the interior of a hollow organ.
An injection of fluid into the rectum for cleaning, healing, sedative, diagnostic or nutritive purposes.
The recession of the eyeball into the cavity of the orbit.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the intestine.
The removal of an undue quantity of fluid from the stomach (or intestine) by use of a hollow needle.
To remove an eye.
A protein which will catalyse a biochemical reaction.
A proturbance above a condyle at the end of a bone which articulates with another bone.
Inflammation of the epicondyle of the humerus or of the area immediately surrounding it.
The scalp muscle.
The outer protective layer of the skin.
Relating to the outermost membrane covering the spinal cord.
Relating to the epigastrium.
The upper part of the abdomen between the navel and the breast.
An affliction of the nervous system characterised by fits.
The growing part of a bone.
Relating to or composed of epithelium.
A closely packed sheet of cells arranged in one or more layers, the component cells of which usually adhere to each other along their edges and surfaces.
Birth injury to the brachial plexus.
Superficial redness of skin in patches.
Red blood cell.
A dry scab.
A sievelike bone lying in front of the sphenoid bone which forms part of the orbit and the nasal cavity.
Normal labour and childbirth without complications.
The bending outwards of a joint.
Increase in severity of a disease or in the violence of symptoms.
To cut tissue away surgically.
An operation to investigate and decide upon the cause of symptoms.
Partial blood loss to a dangerous degree.
The straightening out of a joint.
To stretch out.
Situated on the outside of the dura mater.
Situated on the outside of the eyeball.
The act of forcing a fluid out of, or allowing it to escape from, its proper duct or vessel.
Any substance which has oozed through pores (eg sweat).
The surface on a bone which is small and flat.
Relating to faeces.
Bodily waste derived from ingested food and discharged through the anus.
A pair of slender tubes through which ova pass from the ovaries to the uterus.
Structures at the back of the throat.
Relating to the thigh.
A human embryo from the second month of pregnancy until birth.
Thickening of tissue.
The outer and thinner of the two bones between the knee and the ankle.
An abnormal opening between two hollow organs or a hollow organ and skin.
The bending of a joint.
The bending movement of a joint.
A large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes.
A hollow area.
A broken bone.
Lack of warmth of feeling.
Relating or belonging to the forehead.
An unimpaired cranial bone forming the forehead and the greater part of the orbital roof, and lying in front of the parietals.
The joining together of two bones.
A pear shaped sac on the inferior surface of the right lobe of the liver in which bile is stored.
A solid mass which may form in the gall-bladder.
A group of nerve cells with a common function, especially applied to a collection outside the central nervous system.
Necrosis of tissue due to cutting off the blood supply.
The surgical removal of the whole or part of the stomach.
Relating or belonging to the stomach.
Inflammation of the gastric mucous membrane.
Inflammation of the mucous coat of the stomach and intestines as a result of Salmonella infection.
Relating or belonging to the stomach and the intestine.
The surgical opening of the stomach.
The part of a chromosome which is inherited and in turn passes on characteristics or traits.
Inherited through genes.
Plastic surgery to build up the cheek bone.
Relating or belonging to the reproduction organs.
An angular and sharp backward curvature of the spine usually the result of a disease or tumour.
Inflammation of the gum
A hinge joint.
An organ which produces chemical substances.
A viral infection.
A disease of the eye in which increased pressure in the eyeballs causes damage.
A socket located on the upper outer portion of the shoulder blade.
The 9th cranial nerve which controls the muscles of the back portion of the roof of the mouth.
A type of sugar which circulates naturally in the blood stream.
Relating to the buttock.
A large muscle arising from the ileum and the sacrum.
The organ in which reproductive cells are formed.
The formation of small rounded masses of tissue.
Partial splintering of a bone.
The depression that marks the junction of the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall and the thigh.
A reflex muscle spasm caused by application of pressure
Acute infective polyneuritis.
Fleshy tissue covering the jaw bones around the base of the teeth
Relating to taste organs.
Relating or belonging to gynaecology.
A doctor who specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases peculiar to women.
The study of disease in women.
The swelling and pain resulting from bleeding into a joint.
A collection of blood forming a swelling.
A protein which is present in the red blood cells and which carries oxygen
An accumulation of blood and gas in the pleural cavity.
The escape of blood from any part of the vascular system (ie bleeding).
The escape of blood into the pleural cavity.
Great (big) toe.
The medial bone in the distal row of carpal bones.
A tendon at the back of the knee.
Partial paralysis of one side of the body.
Paralysis of one side of the body.
The making of a surgical opening in the bile duct.
Transmitted from one generation to another.
Inflammation of the liver. The most common causes are alcohol abuse or infection by one of 5 different viruses (A, B, C, D & E).
The protrusion of an internal organ through a defect in the wall of the anatomical cavity in which it normally lies.
The process of formation of a hernia.
The surgical repair of a hernia.
A type of inflammatory disease of the skin or mucous membrane.
A type of amine
The study of the structure of tissues by means of microscopy.
A malignant disease characterised by enlargement of the lymph glands.
The system whereby body functions (temperature, blood pressure, etc) remain in equilibrium whatever the outside environment.
The repair of damaged tissue by grafting on similar tissues from another of the same species.
which it has some specific effect.
The longest and largest bone of the arm.
A form of inflammation of the eye.
Excess carbon dioxide.
Excessive amniotic fluid.
Swelling of the brain due to the accumulation of excess fluid.
The lightest of the chemical elements, gaseous, colourless, odour-less and tasteless.
A V-shaped bone situated at the base of the tongue.
Excessive sensitivity to sight, sound, taste and smell.
Excess blood in a particular part of the body.
Excessive sensitivity to sound, taste, smell and feeling.
Excess carbon dioxide
Abnormal movement of a limb beyond its limit.
High blood pressure.
Enlargement of cells generating an increase in the size of an organ or tissue.
Abnormally fast or deep breathing.
The 12th and last cranial nerve which supplies the muscles of the tongue.
The failure of tissue to develop fully.
The neural control centre at the base of the brain concerned with hunger, thirst, sobriety and other autonomic functions.
An under active thyroid.
Lack of oxygen in the blood.
A supply of oxygen to the tissues which is inadequate to maintain normal tissue respiration.
An operation to remove the uterus.
Surgical incision of the ileum.
The part of the alimentary canal between the jejunum and the caecum.
Relating to the ilium.
The hollow area which can be felt on the surface of the body at each of the two lower corners of the abdomen.
The hip bone.
The body’s defence against foreign substances, eg bacteria, viruses and parasites.
A particular type of protein.
The four front teeth in each jaw.
The lack of voluntary control over the discharge of faeces or urine.
A bone situated in the middle ear.
Excessive toughening of an organ or tissue.
Death of the whole or part of organ caused by the obstruction of blood supply.
Inability to produce children.
The reaction of living tissue in response to injury or infection characterised by heat, redness, swelling and pain.
Situated below the level of the floor of the orbit.
Of the groin.
The hip bone.
To introduce into the body the bacteria which causes a disease in order to induce immunity from it.
Inability to sleep.
A protein hormone secreted by the pancreas.
Situated between ribs.
Rotating a limb inwards.
Occurring in the space between organs.
Between two adjacent vertebrae.
The part of the alimentary canal that extends from the stomach to the anus.
Inside the skull.
Occurring within the substance of a muscle.
Within the eye.
Inside the womb.
Within or introduced into a vein.
An injection into the vein.
Paralysis of the iris in the eye.
A thin muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil of the eye.
Inflammation of the iris.
Surgical incision of the iris.
A metal which is a necessary ingredient of blood.
Deficiency of blood in a part of the body.
One of the three sections of the hip bone.
Having equal dimension.
A yellowing of the skin through the accumulation of bile products in the blood.
The part of the small intestine extending from the end of the duodenum to the ileum.
The chief vein of the head and neck which carries blood from the head to the heart.
In close proximity to a joint.
An overgrowth of fibrous tissue usually on the site of a scar.
An operation to remove a superficial layer of the cornea.
Inflammation of the cornea.
Acidosis caused by fat breaking down.
One of two organs to the right and left of the lumbar region which filter waste products from the blood which are then excreted as urine.
Wire used in traction of the skeleton.
A prominence produced by the head of any of the metacarpal bones.
Relating to the lips (either of the mouth or the vulva).
Surgical repair to the lips (either of the mouth or the vulva).
An interconnecting system of cavities in the inner ear.
Inflammation of the ear.
A tear or cut.
Relating to the production of tears.
A small bone forming the anterior part of the medial wall of the orbit and part of the side wall of the nose.
An operation to relieve the symptoms of a ruptured intervertebral disc (a slipped disc)
A type of trocar provided with an illuminating mechanism with which the abdomen can be examined.
A technique to inspect the pelvic organs by expanding the abdominal cavity with gas, and then inserting a laparoscope.
Incision into the abdomen to explore for the possibility of some disease.
The part of the alimentary canal consisting of the cecum, colon and rectum.
Relating to the larynx.
An operation to remove part of the larynx.
The organ situated at the upper end of the trachea and concerned with the production of the voice.
To the side.
An agent which stimulates the evacuation of the bowel.
A localised area of tissue damage.
Flexible fibrous tissue that holds together, supports and protects two bones at a joint thereby preventing abnormal movement.
A swelling mainly comprised of fat.
A gland situated on the right side of the upper abdomen which secretes bile and detoxifies certain poisons.
Forward curvature of the spine (the opposite of Kyphosis).
Pain in the lower part of the back.
Relating to the lower back.
A cavity in a tubular organ.
A bone of the wrist .
The two organs enclosed by the ribs which oxygenate blood and remove carbon dioxide.
Fluid that flows in the lymphatic channels.
An extensive network of vessels that carry interstitial fluid to the blood.
Any morbid condition affecting the lymph glands.
Resembling a lymph.
A test to diagnose tearing of the knee cartilage.
Abnormally large red blood cells.
A circumscribed spot in any tissue.
The softening of an organ or tissue caused by disease.
Relating to the cheek or cheek bone
Threatening life or tending to cause death (the opposite of benign).
An individual who feigns disease or illness.
A rounded bony prominence on either side of the ankle joint.
The lack of occlusion between the teeth of opposite jaws when the jaws are at rest.
The failure of bones properly to align after fracture.
Relating to the mammary gland.
An operation to reduce the size of the female breasts.
The lower jaw.
The fatty substance that fills the cavities of bones.
Either of the pair of bones constituting the upper jaw.
Placed in the middle.
One of the nerves of the forearm and hand.
The innermost part of an organ.
The lower portion of the brain containing the control centres of the heart and lungs.
The presence of blood in faeces.
A tumour consisting of darkly pigmented cells.
A thin layer of tissue which covers a surface.
Inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord.
Removal of cartilage in the knee.
A crescent shaped cartilage in the wrist and knee joints.
A tumour of the lining of the lung usually the result of exposure to asbestos.
Low pH due to the presence of lactic acid.
The chemical processes that occur in living organisms
Any of the bones of the palm of the hand.
That part of the bone which is growing between the ends and the shaft.
The transfer of disease from its primary site to other parts of the body.
Five long bones forming the skeleton of the anterior part of the foot.
Aching pain in the region of the metatarsal bones.
Rupture of the womb.
An organism of microscopic size.
The broad topped teeth used for grinding which are situated at the back of the mouth.
Paralysis of one limb.
Relating to disease.
A condition associated with falling of the metatarsal arch.
Capable of moving independently and spontaneously.
The nerves which stimulate movement.
A membrane that lines a body cavity, which is open to the external environment and which releases mucus.
A slimy protective substance released by a membrane.
A bundle of bony slender cells that are able to contract and hence produce movement.
Weakness of muscles.
An autoimmune disease which causes weakness in muscles.
An operation to remove part of a muscle.
Inflammation of bone marrow.
An x-ray of the spinal canal after the injection of a radio-opaque contrast medium into the subarachnoid space.
Relating to the myocardium.
The middle of the three layers which form the walls of the heart.
A brief twitching muscular spasm.
A protein which is present in blood and gives it its red colour.
Inflammation of muscles.
Muscular extension (stretching).
An operation to divide a muscle.
A drug that induces sleep.
Relating to the nose.
The area behind the nostrils
The dividing partition that separates the nostrils.
A feeling of sickness with a desire to vomit.
The scar in the centre of the abdomen where the umbilical cord was attached.
A bone situated on the side of the foot.
Unnatural pleasure in corpses and in being in their presence.
Death of tissue.
Inflammation of the kidneys.
An operation into the kidney.
Fibres along which impulses pass from one part of the body to another.
The sensory and control mechanism of the body consisting of a network of nerve cells.
Relating to nerves or the nervous system.
Pain along the course of one or more nerves.
Irritability, headache, dizziness, anxiety, impatience.
Inflammation of a nerve, with pain, tenderness and loss of function.
An operation to remove a nerve.
The surgical formation of an anastomosis between nerves.
The part of the skull containing the brain.
The section of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of diseases of the nervous system.
Any disorder of peripheral nerves (usually causing numbness and weakness).
The temporary failure or impairment of functions due to a disorder of the nervous system.
Inflammation of the optic nerve and retina.
A pathological abnormal emotional state characterised by an inability to deal efficiently with anxiety.
Surgery to treat disease and disorders of the brain and spinal cord.
The need to arise from sleep in order to urinate
A small knot of tissue.
The soft pulpy centre of an intervertebral disc.
Nodding the head.
Involuntary fluttering of the eyes.
An excessive accumulation of fat in the body.
The branch of medicine dealing with the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth.
The bone at the posterior and inferior part of the skull and containing the foramen magnum.
The back of skull.
A procedure whereby a person is given something practical to do to facilitate recovery from illness.
Relating to the eye
Swelling due to accumulation of fluid in tissue.
Inflammation of the gullet.
The part of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and the stomach (gullet).
The sense of smell.
The nerves of smell.
Relating to the umbilicus.
Relating to the nails.
A painful condition affecting the nails.
An operation to remove an ovary.
When a broken bone pierces the skin.
The surgical removal of the eye.
The nerve supplying the eyeball and eyelids.
Inflammation of the eye.
A specialist in the investigation and treatment of eye diseases and defects.
The bursting open of the eye ball.
The nerve of sight.
A person who practises optometry.
The assessment of visual acuity and the correction of visual defects by the fitting of spectacles.
The large bony cavity which contains the eyeball.
The surgical removal of the testis.
Inflammation affecting the testis.
A separate and distinct functional unit of the body.
Relating to a body organ.
Anything resembling a living creature in structure and behaviour.
A dentist who specialises in correcting the mis-alignment of teeth.
Relating to the diseases and disorders that cause damage to bones and joints.
Shortness of breath on lying flat.
The process by which bone is formed.
The surgical removal of a bone.
A chronic disease of the bones causing inflammation and deformity
A degenerative disease of a joint caused by wear and tear
An operation to excise the bone adjoining a joint.
Inflammation of a bone and its adjacent cartilage.
Inflammation of the interior of a bone.
A person who practices osteopathy.
A method of treating disease by manipulation.
Loss of bony tissue causing bones to become softer and liable to bend or fracture.
An operation to suture or wire together the fragments of a fractured bone.
An operation to cut through a bone.
The branch of medicine which deals with the ear.
Inflammation of the ear.
A thickening of the bone of the middle and internal ear producing deafness.
Surgical repair of the ear.
The plural of ovum.
The female gonad.
The development and discharge of an ovum.
A female egg.
The roof of the mouth.
The palm of the hand.
The bending of the wrist towards the arm.
To examine or explore by touch.
Rapid heart action.
A large gland lying on the abdominal wall which secretes insulin.
Inflammation of the pancreas.
A method of staining smears of various body secretions to detect the presence of a or smear malignant process.
Pins and needles.
Inability to move parts of the body.
A mental disorder characterized by delusions of persecution.
Paralysis affecting the lower extremities.
Heightened sensitivity of sensation.
Paralysis of both legs.
The part of the nervous system which acts in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system and which slows the heartbeat.
Situated alongside of the spinal column.
Relating to the walls of a bodily cavity .
One of the bones forming the top of the skull.
A progressive chronic disorder of the nervous system characterised by impaired muscular co-ordination.
Experience of a smell which is not there.
A sudden attack of a disease .
The application of a number of substances to the body to establish which are responsible for an allergy.
An operation to remove the patella.
Relating to the patella and the femur.
Caused by disease
The study of disease.
The partition, consisting of muscles, between the pelvis and the perineum.
The measurement of the shape and dimensions of the pelvis.
The basin-shaped ring of bone at the lower end of the trunk.
An autoimmune disorder of the skin.
The male organ of copulation.
The art of striking the chest or abdominal wall in order to produce sound vibrations from which the nature of the underlying structures can be deduced.
Inflammation of tissue around a joint.
Inflammation of the pericardium.
The membrane which encloses the heart.
The area between the anus and the genital organs.
Situated around a tooth
Inflammation of the periodontal membrane.
Inflammation of the membrane on the surface of a bone.
Near the surface of an organ.
A surgical instrument for inspection of the contents of the abdomen through an incision in the abdominal wall.
The membrane which lines the abdominal cavity.
Inflammation of the peritoneum caused by bacterial infection.
A small spot (usually red or purple) caused by extravasation of blood.
A form of epileptic fit characterized by abrupt loss of consciousness without convulsion and with rapid recovery.
Cells which have the ability to destroy bacteria.
The main bones of the digits of both the hand and foot.
The part of the alimentary canal between the mouth and the oesophagus
An hereditary disorder that produces brain damage resulting in severe mental retardation.
Inflammation of a vein.
Abnormal or excessive sensitivity to light.
Branches of the abdominal aorta.
A paired nerve which supplies the diaphragm, pericardium and pleura.
The study of how the normal body works.
Treatment to restore full movement of a limb by massage, manipulation and exercise.
The innermost membrane covering the brain.
A bone in the wrist.
A gland situated at the base of the brain which secretes hormones affecting skeletal growth.
A vascular organ formed in the uterus during pregnancy and which provides oxygen and nutients to the fetus.
Relating to the sole of the foot.
Flexing the foot.
The muscle in the sole of the foot.
Raised patches of skin.
The fluid portion of the blood in which the blood corpuscles are suspended.
A very small cell in the blood.
The membrane enveloping the lungs.
The space between the covering of the lungs and the inner surface of the chest wall.
Inflammation of the pleura.
A network of nerves or blood vessels.
Relating to the lungs and the heart.
Lung puncture in order to aspirate the contents.
Lung disease caused by inhalation of dust.
Inflammation of the spongy tissue of the lung in which the air sacs become filled with fluid making breathing difficult.
Inflammation of the lung.
Pericarditis associated with the presence of air or gas in the pericardium
Collection of air in the pleural cavity.
An acute inflammation of the spinal cord due to a virus infection.
Composed of or containing many cysts.
An excess of red cells in the blood.
Inflammation of several nerves at the same time.
Tumour attached by a stalk to a surface.
The need to urinate frequently.
Relating to or near to the part of the leg behind the knee.
The back part.
From the back to the front.
Relating or belonging to the period immediately following birth.
A soft white metal related to sodium.
Tuberculosis of the spine.
Fracture of the lower end of the fibula, with outward displacement of the ankle and foot.
A condition arising in pregnancy and characterised by the presence of hypertension, oedema, and/or proteinuria.
The teeth which are situated between the molar and canine teeth. There are two on each side of both jaws.
Persistant erection of the penis.
Inflammation of the rectum.
A doctor who makes a special study of diseases of the anus and rectum.
A doctor’s assessment of how long it will take for a patient to recover.
Advancing in severity.
A slipping down or displacement of an organ.
The rotational movement of the forearm so that the palm faces downwards.
A drug made and labelled by a particular drug company.
A gland (confined to the male) which surrounds the neck of the bladder.
An operation to remove the prostate by surgery.
An inflammatory condition of the prostate.
An artificial part.
A type of chemical compound which is present in all living organisms.
The presence of protein in the urine.
A constituent of plasma that clots the blood.
Nearer to the centre of the body.
A doctor who specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.
A procedure developed by Freud for the investigation of unconscious mental processes.
A person who practises psycho-analysis.
A person who practices psychology
The study of human behaviour by objective testing.
A term applied generally to any kind of mental disorder.
The prolapse or dropping of an organ.
The anterior portion of the hip bone.
Of the lung.
A regular contraction and expansion of an artery at each beat of the heart.
The dark circular aperture at the centre of the iris of the eye through which light passes.
A blood disease which causes a red rash.
A fluid produced by inflammation of tissue consisting of liquified cells.
Inflammation of the kidneys.
A discharge of pus.
Morbid fear of fire.
A disease of warm-blooded animals particularly foxes, wolves, bats and dogs which causes fear of water.
Any painful infection of the spinal column.
The largest branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.
Inflammation affecting the root of a spinal nerve.
Any diseased condition of the roots of nerves.
Not permitting x-rays to pass through.
The bone to the side of the forearm.
Vibration white finger.
Pain on removal of pressure
Relating or belonging to the rectum.
Protrusion of the wall of the rectum into the perineum or vagina.
The lower part of the alimentary canal between the colon and the anus.
Bringing back to the normal position.
The reinsertion in its original situation of an organ or part which has been removed.
Relating to the kidneys.
Any surgical removal of a portion of the body.
The process by which a living organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide.
Acidosis Low pH due to the presence of carbon dioxide.
The innermost coat of the eyeball.
Relating to the retina.
Inflammation of the retina.
Any diseased condition of the retina.
A surgical procedure for the removal of redundant tissue.
A progressive inflammatory disease of joints.
Any ache in joints
Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane.
The correction by surgery of a deformity of the nose.
The cutting of a nerve root for the relief of pain.
A disease in children caused by a deficiency of vitamins which results in the softening of bones.
Right homonymous hemianopia
Visual loss of the right field of vision.
Stiffening ensuing soon after death.
Redness of the skin.
A pouch like part.
Relating or belonging to the sacrum.
Relating or belonging to the sacrum and the lumbar region.
A curved triangular bone in the lower part of the back.
A type of bacteria.
The surgical removal of a fallopian tube.
Inflammation of the fallopian tubes.
Superficial veins of the foot and leg.
A disease which causes inflammation of organs eg skin, eyes, lungs.
A malignant tumour of connective tissue.
A long strap like muscle that aids flexion of the knee.
A bone in the wrist.
The shoulder blade.
Pain in the sciatic nerve down the back of the leg.
The largest nerve in the body, running from the lower spine to the pelvis and down the back of each thigh.
The outer, opaque fibrous coat of the eyeball.
Hardening of a tissue due to inflammation.
Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
A pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue containing the testes, situated below the root of the penis.
To cut or divide an organ by surgery.
Infection with pus forming micro-organisms.
A type of infection in which the blood stream is invaded by bacteria.
A dividing partition between two tissues or cavities.
An operation to remove dead bone.
A portion of dead bone which has become detached from the healthy bone tissue.
A branch of medical science which is concerned with the study of blood serum.
A yellowish fluid that remains after whole blood or plasma has been allowed to clot.
What a doctor can see.
A form of lung disease, caused by inhalation of silicon dust.
When a bone breaks cleanly in two.
Any bodily cavity or hollow space.
Inflammation of a sinus.
The part of the alimentary canal consisting of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
A metallic element used in medicine.
A muscle of the calf.
A sudden, powerful, involuntary contraction of a muscle.
A bone forming the central part of the base of the skull.
Any muscle closing an orifice.
A defect in the development of the spine in which the spinal cord protrudes through a gap in the backbone.
A passage through the middle of the spinal colum that contains the spinal cord.
A cord of nerve tissue within the spinal canal which together with the brain forms the nervous system.
Apparatus used to determine the capacity of the lungs.
A gland situated near the stomach which filters bacteria from the blood.
The surgical removal of the spleen.
Inflammation of the joints of the back bone.
The slipping forward of one vertebra onto another.
The breaking down of vertebrae.
Osteoarthritis of the spine.
Injury by sudden traction to the muscles or ligaments although not sufficient to cause a fracture.
A projecting portion of bone.
One of the bones in the cavity of the ear which has a resemblance to a stirrup.
A type of bacteria.
The abnormal narrowing of an opening or passage.
The breast bone.
An instrument for listening to sounds within the body.
The birth of a dead baby.
The sac like part of the alimentary canal in which food is stored until it is digested.
To injure by overtaxing.
A type of bacteria.
Incontinence caused by coughing, sneezing or laughing.
A sudden seizure caused by the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain.
The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater.
Beneath the skin.
Bleeding under the skull which compresses the brain.
Partial dislocation of a joint, so that the bone ends are mis-aligned but still in contact.
Near to the surface.
The outward rotation of the forearms, so that the palm lies upwards.
Above a condyle.
Situated above the orbit.
Situated above the pubic arch.
A branch of the popliteal nerve in the calf of the leg.
A surgical stitch.
A part of the nervious system which acts in opposition to the parasympathetic nervous system and which accelerates the heartbeat.
The growing together of separate bones in a joint.
What the patient describes.
A faint flow.
A fibrous joint in which the opposing surfaces are held together by a ligament.
A distinct group of symptoms or signs which, associated together, form a characteristic clinical picture.
The joining of bones by the ossification of the connecting tissues.
The cutting away of part or all of a synovial membrane.
A fluid secreted by the membrane lining a joint.
Extra fluid generated by a synovial membrane.
Inflammation of the membrane lining a joint.
Abnormally rapid heart rate.
The ankle bone.
Aching pain in the sole of the foot.
Bones of the foot.
A disease of childhood in which there is a progressive degeneration of nerve cells throughout the whole nervous system and in the retina.
Located in the region of the temple.
One of a pair of bones lying at the base of the skull and housing the middle and inner ear.
Connecting the temporal bone and the mandible.
Inflammation of a tendon.
A band of fibrous tissue which attaches a muscle to a bone.
An operation to repair a damaged tendon.
An operation to unite the ends of a severed tendon.
Inflammation of a tendon producing pain and swelling.
The cutting of a tendon by surgery.
A muscle that stretches or tightens some part of the body.
The male gonad.
An infectious disease caused by organisms entering through an abrasion or wound of the skin.
Relating to the ball of the thumb.
Relating to the chest
An operation to incise the wall of the thorax.
Phlebitis following the formation of a blood clot.
The presence of a thrombus which impedes blood flow.
A clot of co-agulated blood that forms within a blood vessel and remains at the site of the formation.
A gland at the base of the neck which releases hormones which control metabolism and body growth.
The shin bone.
Nerves that constitute the main nerve supply of the leg and foot.
Noise heard in the ear without external cause.
A mass of lymphoid tissue at the back of the throat.
The surgical removal of a tonsil.
The body excluding the head, neck and limbs.
Spasm of the neck muscles, drawing the head to one side and twisting the neck.
Bands of tissue which pass from the outer covering of an organ to the interior.
The tube which carries air from the larynx to the bronchus (the windpipe).
An operation to open the windpipe so that air may obtain direct entrance into lower air passages.
A surgical incision into the wind pipe.
The drawing or pulling of a limb or the spine.
Passing through the urethra.
A bone in the wrist near the thumb.
A large flat muscle located in the upper portion of the back.
A bodily injury or wound.
A test for function of the hip muscle.
The surgical removal of a circular disc of bone or other tissue with a cylindrical saw.
The 5th cranial nerve which supplies the muscles of the mandibular and maxilla.
A bone in the wrist.
Inability to open the mouth due to chronic contractions of the muscles of the jaw.
A surgical instrument used to puncture bodiliy cavities.
Either of the two bony prominences at the upper end of the femur.
The 4th cranial nerve which supplies the muscles of the eye.
A bacterial disease which affects the lungs.
A rounded protuberance on the surface or side of a bone.
An abnormal swelling formed by a new growth of cells.
Shaped like an inverted cone.
The middle ear.
A bacterial disease which causes a fever.
The disintegration of the surface of the skin resulting in an open sore.
The inner bone of the forearm.
One of the primary nerves in the arm.
A long flexible tube like structre which connects the fetus to the placenta.
Relating to the nails.
A colourless crystalline substance which exists in blood and tissue fluids and which is produced by protein metabolism and excreted in urine.
Tubes which take urine from the kidney to the bladder
The canal through which the urine passes on its way from the bladder to the exterior.
Inflammation of the urethra.
The vessels which pass urine from the kidney to the urethra via the bladder.
The fluid which is secreted by the kidneys and which is stored in the bladder and excreted through the urethra.
A skin rash caused by the sudden release of histamine
A hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ lying within the pelvic cavity of the female and which houses the developing fetus.
The process or act of inoculating a person.
The female genital canal.
Inflammation of the vagina.
The 10th of the cranial nerves which supplies the heart, lungs and viscera.
Turned away from the midline of the body.
The surgical severing of a valve.
Turned inwards towards the midline of the body.
Concerned with vessels that circulate fluids.
A vessel carrying oxygen depleted blood to the heart.
A surgical incision into a vein.
Visualisation of veins by x-ray after injecting a radio-opaque contrast medium.
Relating to the blood circulating in the veins.
Relating to the front part of the body.
A small cavity, chamber, or compartment.
A bony segment of the spinal column.
An organism smaller than a bacteria which is surrounded by a protein coat which causes disease.
Concerned with the internal organs, including the heart, lungs, liver and stomach.
Sharpness of vision.
The palm of the hand.
Fixed deformity of the hand due to fibrosis of muscle following injury to blood supply.
The thin bony part of the septum of the nose.
The external genitals of human females.
A stroke effecting the boundary between the parietal and occipital lobes of the brain.
A violent forward and backward movement of the head upon the neck.
Inflammation around a finger nail.
Paralysis of the extensor muscles of the hand and digits.